In Roman times, Newcastle – then called Pons Aelius – was a fort on Hadrian’s Wall, and during the Saxon period, it was known as Monk Chester on account of its many religious houses. The city owes its present name to William the Conqueror who, like Hadrian before him, recognized its strategic importance.
Edinburgh is Scotland’s compact, hilly capital. It has a medieval Old Town and elegant Georgian New Town with gardens and neoclassical buildings. Looming over the city is Edinburgh Castle, home to Scotland’s crown jewels and the Stone of Destiny, used in the coronation of Scottish rulers.